Yazd province, is surrounded by the central is mountains in Iran. Shirkuh Mountainous Range with an elevation of 4075 m is the highest mountain southwest of Yazd Province but the northern and northeastern parts of the region are composed of flat lowlands and salty marshes. Yazd Province is one of the driest regions in the country and is full of barren deserts. The Province has arid and hot weather because it is too far from Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman and the damp winds blowing from them, but lofty Shirkuh Mountainous Range has moderated the climate. Except the Shirkuh territory the other parts of the Province are hot deserts. Yazd Province enjoys short cold winters from October until February and long hot and dry summers from March until September.
Yazd Province was an ancient region in Iran in which one can find primate tools belonging to Ilamite Period. The ancient objects left in caves show that urbanization began in Mehriz, Fahraj, Yazd, Rostaq, Meybod and Ardekan from 3rd millennium BC. During their passage through Yazd the migrating from Balkh to Pars called it ‘The Land of Yazdan’ (God’s region) and since then it became a sacred province. During the Achaemenid Period Yazd Province was connected to the other parts of empire by highways and postal stations. Qobad, Anoushirvan and Yazdgerd of Sassanid Dynasty contributed much to its development.
After Arab invasion they conquered Yazd Province too, but the Deylam Dynasty succeeded to push the Arabs out of the region during the 10th and 11th century. After that many Alavi partisans moved to Yazd to escape persecution from the Sunni caliphs. During the Seljuk Period the Atabaks (feudal governors) established friendly relation with reigning Seljuks to save the region from ruin and contributed much to its development. During Mongol invasion Sultan Abu Mansour pretended he obeyed them to protect Yazd from molestation. As a consequence the Province grew twice its former size and became a busting economic center in the country. After conquering Iran, Timur treated the peaceful inhabitants of Yazd kindly. Shahrokh, Timur’s son, assigned Amir Jalaloldin as governor of Yazd. Jalaloldin treated the people kindly and built many important buildings. During the 15th century Shah Ismaeel of Safavid Dynasty dismissed feudal governors and brought the whole country under his rule.
Ashraf the Afghan who had defeated the last Safavid king tried to conquer Yazd but the people resisted and repelled his troops, but Mahmud, his Successor , conquered the city and massacred many people. Nader Shah expelled the Afghans and appointed Enayat Sultan, his nephew, as governor of Yazd. Enayat and his descendants governed Yazd until the end of Qajar Period and built many new buildings and contributed to the regions development.